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The Arbitrator’s Liability: A Study of Dario Alessi Published on the Journal of International Arbitration

Business law excellence

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Mastering challenges in business law

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Top legal expertise in international business

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Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

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Client satisfaction as first priority

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Business friendly approach

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Business law excellence

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Mastering challenges in business law

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Top legal expertise in international business

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Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

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Client satisfaction as first priority

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Business friendly approach

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Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, dosage Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, story projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, dosage Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, story projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald (LL.M, pills Mag.iur) è un giurista di esperienza che combina pratica legale con attività accademica.

Petra ha una profonda esperienza in diritto civile e commerciale, sia a livello nazionale che internazionale. Petra ha operato per molti anni come Senior Legal Counsel nella società Ernst&Young, e prima di questo nel Consiglio di Europa e nell’ambito industriale. L’ambito di interesse accademico di Patra Hietanen si focalizza nella risoluzione delle controversie in Europa, con particolare riferimento alle forme alternative. Petra sta lavorando in una tesi di dottorato di ricerca in mediazione ed altri progetti, ed è docente all’Università di Helsinki.

Petra vive in Finlandia da più di 15 anni. Ella ha conseguito una Laurea in Giurisprudenza dall’Università di Inssbruck, Austria, ed un titolo postlaurea (LL.M.) in diritto comparato ed europeo ottenuto dall’Università di Helsinki ed ha anche passato l’esame “ETA” per il pieno riconoscimento del proprio titolo di studio universitario in Finlandia. Inoltre Petra ha un titolo universitario in affari transnazionali.

Petra parla tedesco, inglese, finlandese e francese.

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, dosage Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, story projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald (LL.M, pills Mag.iur) è un giurista di esperienza che combina pratica legale con attività accademica.

Petra ha una profonda esperienza in diritto civile e commerciale, sia a livello nazionale che internazionale. Petra ha operato per molti anni come Senior Legal Counsel nella società Ernst&Young, e prima di questo nel Consiglio di Europa e nell’ambito industriale. L’ambito di interesse accademico di Patra Hietanen si focalizza nella risoluzione delle controversie in Europa, con particolare riferimento alle forme alternative. Petra sta lavorando in una tesi di dottorato di ricerca in mediazione ed altri progetti, ed è docente all’Università di Helsinki.

Petra vive in Finlandia da più di 15 anni. Ella ha conseguito una Laurea in Giurisprudenza dall’Università di Inssbruck, Austria, ed un titolo postlaurea (LL.M.) in diritto comparato ed europeo ottenuto dall’Università di Helsinki ed ha anche passato l’esame “ETA” per il pieno riconoscimento del proprio titolo di studio universitario in Finlandia. Inoltre Petra ha un titolo universitario in affari transnazionali.

Petra parla tedesco, inglese, finlandese e francese.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, treatment London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, dosage Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, story projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald (LL.M, pills Mag.iur) è un giurista di esperienza che combina pratica legale con attività accademica.

Petra ha una profonda esperienza in diritto civile e commerciale, sia a livello nazionale che internazionale. Petra ha operato per molti anni come Senior Legal Counsel nella società Ernst&Young, e prima di questo nel Consiglio di Europa e nell’ambito industriale. L’ambito di interesse accademico di Patra Hietanen si focalizza nella risoluzione delle controversie in Europa, con particolare riferimento alle forme alternative. Petra sta lavorando in una tesi di dottorato di ricerca in mediazione ed altri progetti, ed è docente all’Università di Helsinki.

Petra vive in Finlandia da più di 15 anni. Ella ha conseguito una Laurea in Giurisprudenza dall’Università di Inssbruck, Austria, ed un titolo postlaurea (LL.M.) in diritto comparato ed europeo ottenuto dall’Università di Helsinki ed ha anche passato l’esame “ETA” per il pieno riconoscimento del proprio titolo di studio universitario in Finlandia. Inoltre Petra ha un titolo universitario in affari transnazionali.

Petra parla tedesco, inglese, finlandese e francese.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, treatment London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.

10 Motivi per Costituire una Società in Finlandia

Costituire una società in Finlandia rappresenta una scelta conveniente e consigliabile per i seguenti motivi:

1. Tassazione unica societaria al 20%;

2. Nessuna altra tassa o imposta a carico della società oltre quella sopra descritta, stomach quale ad esempio IRAP, visit this site TASI ecc.;

3. Elevata deducibilità dei costi;

4. Non esistono notai, more about  la burocrazia è ridotta al minimo;

5. Capitale sociale minimo per una SpA di soli 2.500 euro;

6. Non esistono studi di settore;

7. I soci azionisti non risultano da visure o atti pubblici;

8. Non esiste la registrazione dei contratti;

9. Assenza di obblighi di cittadinanza finlandese, residenza o domiciliazione in Finlandia a carico di soci o amministratori;

10. Prestigio del paese, terzo al mondo per competitività e primo nella UE. Il Paese si trova al vertice di ogni classifica o statistica internazionale.

Per ulteriori informazioni si contatti il seguente indirizzo e-mail: info@jurisprudentia.fi

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, dosage Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, story projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald (LL.M, pills Mag.iur) è un giurista di esperienza che combina pratica legale con attività accademica.

Petra ha una profonda esperienza in diritto civile e commerciale, sia a livello nazionale che internazionale. Petra ha operato per molti anni come Senior Legal Counsel nella società Ernst&Young, e prima di questo nel Consiglio di Europa e nell’ambito industriale. L’ambito di interesse accademico di Patra Hietanen si focalizza nella risoluzione delle controversie in Europa, con particolare riferimento alle forme alternative. Petra sta lavorando in una tesi di dottorato di ricerca in mediazione ed altri progetti, ed è docente all’Università di Helsinki.

Petra vive in Finlandia da più di 15 anni. Ella ha conseguito una Laurea in Giurisprudenza dall’Università di Inssbruck, Austria, ed un titolo postlaurea (LL.M.) in diritto comparato ed europeo ottenuto dall’Università di Helsinki ed ha anche passato l’esame “ETA” per il pieno riconoscimento del proprio titolo di studio universitario in Finlandia. Inoltre Petra ha un titolo universitario in affari transnazionali.

Petra parla tedesco, inglese, finlandese e francese.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, treatment London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.

10 Motivi per Costituire una Società in Finlandia

Costituire una società in Finlandia rappresenta una scelta conveniente e consigliabile per i seguenti motivi:

1. Tassazione unica societaria al 20%;

2. Nessuna altra tassa o imposta a carico della società oltre quella sopra descritta, stomach quale ad esempio IRAP, visit this site TASI ecc.;

3. Elevata deducibilità dei costi;

4. Non esistono notai, more about  la burocrazia è ridotta al minimo;

5. Capitale sociale minimo per una SpA di soli 2.500 euro;

6. Non esistono studi di settore;

7. I soci azionisti non risultano da visure o atti pubblici;

8. Non esiste la registrazione dei contratti;

9. Assenza di obblighi di cittadinanza finlandese, residenza o domiciliazione in Finlandia a carico di soci o amministratori;

10. Prestigio del paese, terzo al mondo per competitività e primo nella UE. Il Paese si trova al vertice di ogni classifica o statistica internazionale.

Per ulteriori informazioni si contatti il seguente indirizzo e-mail: info@jurisprudentia.fi
Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, find ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, mind Issue 6, pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, dosage Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, story projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald (LL.M, pills Mag.iur) è un giurista di esperienza che combina pratica legale con attività accademica.

Petra ha una profonda esperienza in diritto civile e commerciale, sia a livello nazionale che internazionale. Petra ha operato per molti anni come Senior Legal Counsel nella società Ernst&Young, e prima di questo nel Consiglio di Europa e nell’ambito industriale. L’ambito di interesse accademico di Patra Hietanen si focalizza nella risoluzione delle controversie in Europa, con particolare riferimento alle forme alternative. Petra sta lavorando in una tesi di dottorato di ricerca in mediazione ed altri progetti, ed è docente all’Università di Helsinki.

Petra vive in Finlandia da più di 15 anni. Ella ha conseguito una Laurea in Giurisprudenza dall’Università di Inssbruck, Austria, ed un titolo postlaurea (LL.M.) in diritto comparato ed europeo ottenuto dall’Università di Helsinki ed ha anche passato l’esame “ETA” per il pieno riconoscimento del proprio titolo di studio universitario in Finlandia. Inoltre Petra ha un titolo universitario in affari transnazionali.

Petra parla tedesco, inglese, finlandese e francese.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, treatment London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.

10 Motivi per Costituire una Società in Finlandia

Costituire una società in Finlandia rappresenta una scelta conveniente e consigliabile per i seguenti motivi:

1. Tassazione unica societaria al 20%;

2. Nessuna altra tassa o imposta a carico della società oltre quella sopra descritta, stomach quale ad esempio IRAP, visit this site TASI ecc.;

3. Elevata deducibilità dei costi;

4. Non esistono notai, more about  la burocrazia è ridotta al minimo;

5. Capitale sociale minimo per una SpA di soli 2.500 euro;

6. Non esistono studi di settore;

7. I soci azionisti non risultano da visure o atti pubblici;

8. Non esiste la registrazione dei contratti;

9. Assenza di obblighi di cittadinanza finlandese, residenza o domiciliazione in Finlandia a carico di soci o amministratori;

10. Prestigio del paese, terzo al mondo per competitività e primo nella UE. Il Paese si trova al vertice di ogni classifica o statistica internazionale.

Per ulteriori informazioni si contatti il seguente indirizzo e-mail: info@jurisprudentia.fi
Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, find ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, mind Issue 6, pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, treat ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, pharmacy Issue 6, this web pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Business law excellence

Image not available

Mastering challenges in business law

Image not available

Top legal expertise in international business

Image not available

Successful legal business solutions

Safeguarding your rights in business

Image not available

Client satisfaction as first priority

Image not available

Business friendly approach

Image not available

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, viagra sale London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, information pills alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.
Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, more about Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald on kokenut juristi ja CEDR:n (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, dosage Lontoo) hyväksymä sovittelija. Hänen pääalueensa ovat liikejuridiikka, story projektien hallinta sekä vaihtoehtoinen riidanratkaisu. Petra opettaa Helsingin Yliopistossa vaihtoehtoiseen riidanratkaisuun liittyviä kursseja sekä tekee väitöskirjaa vaihtoehtoisesta riidanratkaisusta.

Petralla on laaja asiantuntemus suomalaisesta ja kansainvälisestä yksityis- ja kauppaoikeudesta. Hän on työskennellyt useita vuosia kansainvälisessä Ernst & Young –konsulttiyhtiössä Senior Legal Counsel –tehtävissä. Ennen sitä hän työskenteli Euroopan neuvostossa sekä kansainvälisen suuryrityksen lakimiehenä.

Petralla on oikeustieteen maisterin tutkinto Innsbruckin yliopistosta ja postgraduate LL.M. tutkinto Helsingin Yliopistosta. Lisäksi hän on suorittanut suomalaisen OTM tutkinnon vaatimat vastaavuuskokeet. Oikeustieteellisten opintojen lisäksi hän on suorittanut tutkinnon kansainvälisestä kaupasta.

Petra puhuu saksaa, englantia, suomea ja ranskaa.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald (LL.M, pills Mag.iur) è un giurista di esperienza che combina pratica legale con attività accademica.

Petra ha una profonda esperienza in diritto civile e commerciale, sia a livello nazionale che internazionale. Petra ha operato per molti anni come Senior Legal Counsel nella società Ernst&Young, e prima di questo nel Consiglio di Europa e nell’ambito industriale. L’ambito di interesse accademico di Patra Hietanen si focalizza nella risoluzione delle controversie in Europa, con particolare riferimento alle forme alternative. Petra sta lavorando in una tesi di dottorato di ricerca in mediazione ed altri progetti, ed è docente all’Università di Helsinki.

Petra vive in Finlandia da più di 15 anni. Ella ha conseguito una Laurea in Giurisprudenza dall’Università di Inssbruck, Austria, ed un titolo postlaurea (LL.M.) in diritto comparato ed europeo ottenuto dall’Università di Helsinki ed ha anche passato l’esame “ETA” per il pieno riconoscimento del proprio titolo di studio universitario in Finlandia. Inoltre Petra ha un titolo universitario in affari transnazionali.

Petra parla tedesco, inglese, finlandese e francese.

Petra Hietanen-Kunwald is an experienced lawyer and CEDR (Center for Effective Dispute Resolution, treatment London) accredited mediator. Her field of expertise is business law, alternative dispute resolution and project management. She is a doctoral candidate at the University of Helsinki, conducts research in the field of European and alternative dispute resolution and teaches courses on dispute resolution at the University of Helsinki.

Petra has profound expertise in domestic and international civil and commercial law. She worked for several years as a Senior Legal Counsel at Ernst&Young, a multinational professional services firm. Before that, she served at the Council of Europe and worked as in-house counsel in an international company.

Petra holds a Master’s degree in law (University of Innsbruck, Austria), a postgraduate LL.M. degree in comparative and European law (University of Helsinki) and has successfully accomplished the recognition exams for the Finnish OTM degree. In addition to her legal education she has passed a degree in cross-border business.

Petra speaks German, English, Finnish and French.

10 Motivi per Costituire una Società in Finlandia

Costituire una società in Finlandia rappresenta una scelta conveniente e consigliabile per i seguenti motivi:

1. Tassazione unica societaria al 20%;

2. Nessuna altra tassa o imposta a carico della società oltre quella sopra descritta, stomach quale ad esempio IRAP, visit this site TASI ecc.;

3. Elevata deducibilità dei costi;

4. Non esistono notai, more about  la burocrazia è ridotta al minimo;

5. Capitale sociale minimo per una SpA di soli 2.500 euro;

6. Non esistono studi di settore;

7. I soci azionisti non risultano da visure o atti pubblici;

8. Non esiste la registrazione dei contratti;

9. Assenza di obblighi di cittadinanza finlandese, residenza o domiciliazione in Finlandia a carico di soci o amministratori;

10. Prestigio del paese, terzo al mondo per competitività e primo nella UE. Il Paese si trova al vertice di ogni classifica o statistica internazionale.

Per ulteriori informazioni si contatti il seguente indirizzo e-mail: info@jurisprudentia.fi
Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, find ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, mind Issue 6, pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, treat ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, pharmacy Issue 6, this web pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, order ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, Issue 6, pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, remedy buy information pills ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, Issue 6, pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, remedy buy information pills ’Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, Issue 6, pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the Journal

Volume 31 (2014) / Issue 6

Dario Alessi, ‘Enforcing Arbitrator’s Obligations: Rethinking International Commercial Arbitrators’ Liability’ (2014) 31 Journal of International Arbitration, shop Issue 6, doctor pp. 735–784

Abstract

Liability of arbitrators touches the heart of the concept of arbitration as it affects the legal relationship between the arbitrators and the parties and concerns some essential issues on the nature of the arbitrator’s mandate.

This article intends to propose an alternative conceptual approach to the immunity-based theories, endorsing the suggestion that the arbitrator shall be liable as any normal intellectual service provider for breach of her obligations. Regarding the regime of liability, a systematization is proposed whereby strict liability, fault-based liability and tortious liability cohabitate. This relationship is argued being contractual. The existence of an objective contractual exchange underlies contractual liability for breach. As a consequence, the thesis proposed in this article is that the arbitrator shall be liable for breaches of the obligations contractually incurred. These contractual obligations can be divided into two main clusters, namely, the obligation to decide the dispute submitted and the obligation to provide a fair and equal adjudication. Thus, a dual regime of contractual liability for arbitrators is proposed. A separate set of obligations is represented by the pre-contractual duties of disclosure, which are tort-based. The plain existence of a contractual relationship between the arbitrator and the parties automatically sets aside all those theories claiming that because of the status or for some policy argument, the arbitrator must be immune from liability. As a consequence, any immunity or qualified immunity-based theory is rebutted in favor of a full liability-based conceptual scheme.  

Copyright © 2014 Kluwer Law International
All rights reserved

ISSN: 0255-8106
ID: JOIA2014035

Link to the article